Philosophy Exam Challenge 1 Answers

Best label for Diogenes – cynic
Stace – He believes acts done freely are "those whose immediate causes are psychological states in the agent," meaning that if an action is directly caused by a person's thoughts, wishes, emotions, desires etc. it is free; and acts not done freely are "those whose immediate causes are states of affairs external to the agent," meaning that if an action is caused by outside forces, it is not free. (free will is compatible with determinism)
Dogmatism – unfounded positiveness in matters of opinion; arrogant assertion of opinions as truths.
second formation of categorical imperatives – "always, treat humanity, oneself on others, as an end in itself, and never merely as a means to an end."
Necessary Condition – This is a condition which must be met whenever the thing in question exists, e.g. having two wheels is such a condition for a bicycle
Moral skeptics – Neg Dogmatic
(w/ respect to morality)

ONLY a MORAL behavior
**no good/bad – behavior we AWARD, behavior we PUNISH

closest to academic skepticism
partial radical (radical view w/ respect to ethics)

no way to know a person's moral views w/o asking them directly

can't observe behavior and know…

accident – an attribute which may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
primary qualities- – the properties of objects that reside in the objects ( such as size, shape, weight) independent of or perceptions of the object.
Lane-Craig – Advocates anthropic principle
Secondary qualities – Locke; the effect of primary qualities on our senses (color, taste, smell)
Character Virtue – -a character train manifested in habitual action (you do not have virtue of honesty if you only tell the truth when it serves your purpose)
1. a stable state
2. having to do with choice
3. mean between excess and deficiency
4. a mean relative to us
5. a mean determined by logos
6. a mean determined by the way someone with practical wisdom would determine it
John Locke – Empiricist that had idea of "Tabula Rasa"
Deutscher Idealismus – Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm, Friedrich Hegel
reformative – definition which tells us how a word ought to be used
kangaroo effect – souls dont leap out of bodies
Ready-made World – world is established and given to you
Necessary Condition – This is a condition which must be met whenever the thing in question exists, e.g. having two wheels is such a condition for a bicycle
Determinism – Things happen in a fixed way, which cannot be altered
Altruism – Helping others without something in return
Taxation – Against Taxation is a violation of human rights/freedom.

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