Political Science Chapter 9

Authority – The justification and right to exercise political power.
Initial Conception of the Judicial Branch – Weak with little power (opposite)
Supreme law of the land – The U.S. Constitution's description of its own authority, meaning that all laws made by the government within the United States must be in compliance with the Constitution
How many judges are in each Court of Appeal? – 3 judges
Norm – standard of behavior for actors with a given identity
Exigent Circumstances – Situations that require extralegal or exceptional actions by the police. In these circumstances, police officers are justified in not following procedural rules, such as those pertaining to search and arrest warrants.
SMP – D: single member district / plurality
I: tends to produce TWO-PARTY system (DUVERGER'S LAW)
E: USA, Australia, United Kingdom
Governor General – Representative of the Queen in Canada who normally performs her head of state functions
Griswold v. Connecticut – In this case, it was argued that doctors had a right to privacy with their patients. The Supreme Court majority disagreed and ruled that citizens did not have a right to privacy. In the published Opinion of Court, the four judges that voted in the minority expressed their opinions in the Dissenting Opinion that citizens did have a right to privacy, citing the 4th and 9th Amendments. Even though this case set no precedent, the Dissenting Opinion was used as the basis for Roe v. Wade.
mandate – level of support for an elected official as perceived through election results
What impact does the exclusionary rule, created in Mapp v. Ohio, have on the American legal system?
grandfather clause – you or male relative voted before 1867, 15A not ratified until 1870
Judicial Review – power of the courts to overturn legislature or actions of the executive branch of government
Whаt impаct dоes the exclusiоnаry rule, created in Mapp v. Ohiо, have on the American legal system?
Barren vs. Baltimore – city takes Barren's land without his consent. Wanted to be compensated for his land being taken away and destroyed. Supreme court ruled that the federal constitution applies to the federal govt. and that Barren couldn't use this to be protected by the city of Baltimore's actions.
Federalism – The break up between the 3 branches
Why wasn't the Cons't written with the best interests? – -Protection of the propertied class
-People only voted for House of Representatives
-No protection of civil rights and liberties
-Women and minorities not included in new gov't
US Agency for International Development – provides economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States while improving the agricultural production

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