Glencoe Biology Chapter 8: Cellular Energy

Ion channel – Membrane proteins allow ions to pass through since they are polar they can't just diffuse through; provides passageways through cell membrane ions
Spindle Fibers – the "ropes" which pull the sister chromatids to the sides of the cell
Growth – The addition of body or cell mass. Multicellular organisms grow by increasing the number of cells. Single-celled organisms grow by the addition of cytoplasm (including cytoplasmic organelles).
Independent Variable – Variable that the experimenter changes
Cloning – A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source (e.g., DNA cloning, the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a self‐replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid; reproductive cloning, the transfer of genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg cell that has had its nucleus removed for the purpose of creating an embryo that can produce an exact genetic copy of the donor organism; or therapeutic cloning, the process of taking undifferentiated embryonic cells [STEM cells] for use in medical research).
210. What is body plan? – During gastrulation in vertebrates, the general shape of the organism takes place
Carpal refers to the __________.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – there are two types of this organelle, rough and smooth. it is responsible for making proteins and lipids
sickle cell disease – a human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that results in the substitution of a single amino acid in a globin polypeptide that is part of the hemoglobin protein; characterized by deformed red blood cells (due to protein aggregation) that can lead to numerous symptoms
*Mutation – DNA is (significantly) changed as compared to parents, often it is one spot but it results in a major change.
abscissic acid – A plant hormone that controls dormancy, and inhibits other hormones.
(T/F) Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs involved in transport and storage of cellular materials. – True
Cаrpаl refers tо the __________.
How is the stomach adapted to churn food? – It has a muscular wall.
Pseudopod – a dynamically extending lobe of cytoplasm used for motility or engulfment
semicircular canals – Fluid-filled channels in the inner ear that detect changes in the head's rate of rotation or angular movement.
caratact – clouding of the lens inside the eye due to age, uv exposure, trauma. = Hazy vision, loss of contrast, blurry vision
treatment- surgery-> lens removed and artificial lens put in place
purine – One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Adenine (A) and guanine (G).

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