Nitrogen cycle – the process that cycles the different forms of nitrogen through the ecosystem using bacteria, decomposers, plants and animals
Vascular tissue – the plant tissue composed of conducting tubes of xylem and phloem
enantiomers – Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
signal transduction pathway – The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.
Messenger RNA – RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Nucleus – the control center of the cell, contains eukaryotic DNA
chemoautotroph – An organism that uses chemicals such as iron and sulfur to get energy
Which parts of the brain controls breathing? – The medulla controls breathing
discharge of fat
Algae – The many different species of photosynthetic, mostly plant-like organisms that generally populate aquatic environments and produce the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere.
Enzyme – special protein that serves as a biological catalyst that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes
Bundle-sheath cells – In C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
active transport – The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy (often as ATP).
Nucleus – Directs all cellular activities
telophase II – 4 daughter cells and each cell is haploid with unreplicated chromosomes
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Sessile – an organism that spends its entire life attached to one location
Anaerobic Organism – An organism that does not require oxygen.
binary fission – type of asexual reproduction in an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
microorganisms – living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
*Transformation – The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell. Bacteria "sense" when an old piece of DNA is floating near them (the remains of a dead bacteria that had partially decomposed). It "thinks" I could really use that DNA to do great things so it grabs that DNA strand and it becomes a plasmid, which it can then pass on to other needy bacteria.