Psychology Chapter 14psychological Treatments

Temperament – The basic and pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and that establish the tempo and mood of the individual's behaviors
projective (personality) test – diagnostic personality test using stimuli (ink blots, pictures, abstract patterns, incomplete sentences that reflect aspects of an individuals personality
Psychodynamic – How behavior springs from unconscious drives a conflicts.
Alzheimer's disease – a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning
Diffusion of Responsibility – weakening of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
Affective prejudice – Emotional component, what people like or dislike
crystalized intelligence – one's accumulated acknowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. Refers to those aspects of intellectual ability, such as vocabulary and general knowledge that reflect accumulated learning. Crystallized intelligence tends to increase with age.
According to the common-sense model of illness, the label we place on a disease, such as an “upset tummy” for gastritis, is known as the illness:
Significance level – the probability of a false rejection of the null hypothesis in a statistical test; also known as level of significance
autonomic nervous system – part of the peripheral nervous system controlling the involuntary actions of our internal organs & glands, which (along with the limbic system) participates in emotion)
bipolar cells – specialize neuron located in the eye; as one dendrite and one axon; connects rods/cones to ganglion cells
Psychological Treatment – SD – Reversing the effects of learning abnormal behaviour, this treatment involved several steps:
1. The client learns deep relaxation techniques.
2. The client and therapist create an anxiety hierarchy of the feared stimulus.
3. The client, starting with the lowest level on the hierarchy, employs their relaxation technique while exposing themselves to the anxiety stimulus. Once they can expose themselves to the stimulus without fear they move up to the next level on the hierarchy.
fMRI (functional MRI) – a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function.
linguistic determinism – Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Extinction – Decline in the C.R. in the absense of the U.S.
Accоrding tо the cоmmon-sense model of illness, the lаbel we plаce on а disease, such as an “upset tummy” for gastritis, is known as the illness:
Extrasensory perception (ESP) – The controversial claim that perception can occur apart form sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
dissociative identity disorder (DID) – A dissociative disorder in which a person appears to have more than one identity, each of which behaves in a different way.

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