Ethnic Studies Study Guide 1

English Immerision Programs – teaching English and explaining difficuly concepts in the native language
December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor
Racial Binary – White vs. Black; they don't exist with out each other.
Absolute Deprivation: – Not expected to survive. Few (if any) needs are met.
1790 Naturalization Act – • Only free white persons could become citizens by naturalization
o no borders, just come
• The "house" is built, from colonial times (defining/legislating race) w/ racism as its foundation
o built-in ideas of race
o house of white privilege, supremacy, → hard to shift that
• Race isn't really real, but we defined it as real
o can't define black w/o white → dependent on each other
1607 Jamestown – Africans brought in 1619. Original Slave town
Dualism – Dualism is the tendency to place things in binarist, opposing categories. This is significant because it shows how today's society tends to ignore complexities and contradictions for the sake of ease as well as created an "us" and "them" mindset. Dualism is seen through examples such as black and white, straight and gay, man and woman, etc.
ethnocentrism – the belief that the majority group is better than the minority group and is bias towards their culture
Jim crow – Southern state segregation laws,covered use of all public facilities ,including schools,restaurants
Anthony Johnson – an African indentured servant who became successful and wanted to bestow his children his land, but taken to court and ruled black people cannot be given land
World System Theory – A view of the global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that provide natural resources and labor
Drawing on three authors, how does the concept of social construction impact understandings of race and racism? – 1.OMI&WINANT "Theory of Racial Formations"
-race is an activity that keeps changing
– racialization: extension of racial meaning to previously racially unclassified relationship, practice, or group
-Process of racial formation: social structures (institutions, siting of homes/jobs, laws, policies, resource distribution, etc → ex. airport security) linked to cultural representations (images, narratives, ideologies, stereotypes) by racial projects
-Racial projects provide explanatory framework & route resources differently based on racial lines

2. SINGH "American Race / American Racism"
– form of racialization:"cultural/signifying systems that depreciate one form of humanity for purposes of another's health, development, safety, profit, or pleasure" → privilege based on the "other"
-"blackness" is a limited case=has boundaries
-"self possessed individual"=white man, rational, knows how to own property/spend $

3.EDWARD SAID "intro to Orientalism "
-creation of the Occident and Orientalism
-Theory of knowledge originated in the West to create representations of the colonized East

According to Nikhil Singh what does liberalism have to do with race, capitalism, and empire? – -Exceptions and Limits are Racism (blackness) and Sexism (women) because "others" are possessed/owned by White Men
-Upholds Capitalist state by maintaining racial/gender inequality through law, ideology of other becomes the rationale for denying equality & creates logic of inequality, individualism in the market allows anti-blackness to operate.
The market embodies liberty, private individuals, range of differences, competitive, and atomistic freedom. In order for capitalism to work, market needs racial difference
Drawing on three authors, how does the concept of social construction impact understandings of race and racism? – 1.OMI&WINANT “Theory of Racial Formations”
-race is an activity that keeps changing
– racialization: extension of racial meaning to previously racially unclassified relationship, practice, or group
-Process of racial formation: social structures (institutions, siting of homes/jobs, laws, policies, resource distribution, etc → ex. airport security) linked to cultural representations (images, narratives, ideologies, stereotypes) by racial projects
-Racial projects provide explanatory framework & route resources differently based on racial lines

2. SINGH “American Race / American Racism”
– form of racialization:”cultural/signifying systems that depreciate one form of humanity for purposes of another's health, development, safety, profit, or pleasure” → privilege based on the “other”
-“blackness” is a limited case=has boundaries
-“self possessed individual”=white man, rational, knows how to own property/spend $

3.EDWARD SAID “intro to Orientalism ”
-creation of the Occident and Orientalism
-Theory of knowledge originated in the West to create representations of the colonized East

Why are asian americans considered the model minority? – Industriousness, educational attainments, and economic success. This myth has been used to justify omitting asian americans from federal funding and some special minority programs.
The unanimous supreme court decision in Meritor Saving Bank v. Vinson declared that – women should get equal pay for comparable work
ethnocentrism – the belief that the majority group is better than the minority group and is bias towards their culture
Affirmative Action – A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination. SIGNIFICANCE: it receives a lot of criticism about whether or not equal treatment=fairness or differential treatment=fairness.
Racialization – extension of racial meaning to a previously racially unclassified relationship, social practice or group

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