Synapse – the microscopic gap that serves as a communications link between neurons. Synapses also occur between neurons and the muscles or glands they serve.
brainstem – the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Control Group – in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
According to _________ theory, prejudice may result, at least in part, from the need to increase one's own self-esteem by looking down on others. – social identity
Diana Baumrind – researcher who developed a model of parenting styles that included authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive
clinical psychologist – holds an advanced degree in psychology but is not a medical doctor; specializes in identifying and treating persons with mental illness, but does not prescribe medication
Archetypes – The ancient memory images in the collective unconscious. Archetypes appear and reappear in art, literature, and folktales around the world
Autonomic Nervous System – Controls "regular" functions of the glands and muscles.
Insomnia – recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Kate suffers from alcoholism. She stopped drinking alcohol, but relapsed within a month. Kate now feels like a failure and thinks that all of the work she put in to cut back on drinking was for nothing. These feelings are example of the phenomena known as a(n):
Echoic memory – Auditory sensory memory; fleeting impressions of what we hear. Also known as auditory memory
closure – similar to top-down processing, objects that make up a recognizable image are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind needs to fill in
Maintenance Rehearsal (7.11) – A working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory. This involves no active elaboration.
sympathetic system – Fight or flight
hypothalamus – small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex
Therapy – treatment intended to relieve or heal a disorder
Kаte suffers frоm аlcоhоlism. She stopped drinking аlcohol, but relapsed within a month. Kate now feels like a failure and thinks that all of the work she put in to cut back on drinking was for nothing. These feelings are example of the phenomena known as a(n):
Schizophrenia – A psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions
Sociocultural Perspective – Explores how behavior is influenced by social and cultural factors
Persistence – A memory problem in which unwanted memories cannot be put out of mind
relative deprivation – the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
structuralism – school of psychology developed by Wilhelm Wundt