History Of Language And Linguistics Midterm

younger – children of this comparative age learned LSN (pidgin sign language) from other children, but dramatically modified it into ISN (fully expressive language)
Language requires two abstract parts – vocabulary
grammer
transcribe – write down the words of something spoken
free morphemes – morphemes that can stand alone as words (i.e. cold, banana, ground)
(Lev) Vygotsky – 11. Researcher who believed that language developed primarily from social interaction.
Fallacy – A failure of logical reasoning. fallacies appear to make an argument reasonable, but falsely so.The key, however, is for you to be able to spot when someone is not making sense or is failing to convince. When that happens, you may not remember the right label for the fallacy, but you should be able to identify where the author has messed up. In the chapter on the rhetorical analysis, we discuss a variety of common fallacies, and we have included most of them alphabetically in the vocabulary list: ad hominem. begging the question, straw man, alippery slope. etc.
Students Should Hear Models of Fluent Reading – Primary teachers should read aloud daily to there students. By reading effortlessly and with expression, the teacher is modeling how a fluent reader sounds during reading. After a teacher models how to read students should reread selection.
A teacher should encourage parents or other family members to read aloud to their children at home. The more models of fluent reading the children hear, the better. Of course, hearing a model of fluent reading is not the only benefit of reading aloud to children. Reading to children also increases their knowledge of the world, their vocabulary, their familiarity with written language, and their interest in reading.
Historical cost – residual value / EUL – Depreciation-Mike
transitive verbs – Verbs that take objects
dialect – (variety) is the shared, unique linguistic characteristics of a language community.
4 stages of cognitive development – sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor-birth to 2 / preoperational-age 2 to 7 / concrete operational-age 7 to 11 / formal operation-age 11 and up
Fuzzy logic (colors) – systems that do not distinguish the focal colors modeled as fuzzy set unions.

• COOL = green OR blue (maximum of curves)
• WARM = red OR yellow

Histоricаl cоst – residuаl vаlue / EUL – Depreciatiоn-Mike
K-Means – algorithm that is a related "hard" clustering algorithm that is simple and easy to understand
Lightbown and Spada (1980s & 90s) – SLA hypothesis about how people learn a second language, and dispell common myths about "popular ideas"

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