Biology: Genetics Vocabulary

Nucleotides – molecules that make up DNA
compound – a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. Salt is an example.
2.5.1 Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis and cytokinesis – The first stage of cell division is interphase which is divided into 3 phases; G1, S and G2. The cell cycle starts with G1 (Gap phase 1) during which the cell grows larger. This is followed by phase S (synthesis) during which the genome is replicated. Finally, G2 (gap phase 2) is the second growth phase which separates the newly replicated genome and marks the end of interphase.
The fourth stage is mitosis which is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During mitosis the spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes and pull sister chromatids apart. This stage separates the two daughter genomes. Finally, cytokinesis is the last stage during which the cytoplasm divides to create two daughter cells. In animal cells the cell is pinched in two while plant cells form a plate between the dividing cells.
antennule – A smaller set of antenna found on crustaceans.
carbon dioxide fixation – transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds; dark reactions or light-independent reactions
What are the disadvantages of testing on animals? – It may not show the effect the drugs will have on humans, and, if the drugs are bad, the animal could suffer.
food web – network of complex interactions formed by feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
k-species – animals which have few offspring but invest large amounts of care in raising them
desmid – This is a group of green algae that looks like two halves, constricted in the middle by a isthmus
emigration – Movement out of population. Decreases population size.
The term that means abnormal condition of (lateral) curved (spine)
anticodon – a three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA
Chromatin – is disorganized, unravelled, DNA with histones attached.
23 – The haploid number of cells in humans.
species diversity – Variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community.
anabolic steroids – A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
light-dependent reactions – part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions…
The term thаt meаns аbnоrmal cоnditiоn of (lateral) curved (spine)
Base – compound that donates OH- ions to an aqueous solution and measures between 7 and 14 on the pH scale
Taxis – Movement towards or away from a stimulus
water – H2O; polar molecule that expands upon freezing making it less dense as a solid than as a liquid (so ice floats)

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