Aqa Biology Gcse Units 2 And 3

phylogeny – Evolutionary relationship among organisms
Endoplasm – The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.
Cell – The basic unit of structure and function for all living organisms. Cells have three common components: genetic material, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane. Eukaryotic cells also contain specialized organelles.
gas exchange – the process of swapping one gas for another. It occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Oxygen diffuses into the capillaries from the air in the alveoli and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the capillaries and into the air in the alveoli.
heterozygous – organism with 2 different alleles for a specific trait
peripheral proteins – proteins that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all
An excessive amount of fats in the blood is called
Anapase – shortest part of mitosis
1. two sister chromatids split
2. these chromatids, now chromosomes, move toward opp. poles of the cell
3. this is because the microtubules are pulling them
3.3.4 Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds – double helix; two chains of nucleotides / composed of nucleotides; nucleotides consist of base, deoxyribose (sugar)and phosphate; bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; anti-parallel / strands; links between nucleotides; hydrogen bonds between base pairs / purine and pyrimidine on opposite chains; only A-T and G-C / complementary base pairs are A-T and G-C;
two bonds between A-T and 3 between G-C;
Biochemical Evidence – Universal genetic code, Evidence for "Common Ancestor" unity of life.
Does the electron transport chain require oxygen? – Yes , O2 is the final electron acceptor, forming water
Aerobic respiration – Growing or metabolizing only in the presence of molecular oxygen
climate – Seasonal pattern of weather conditions in an area over many years; does not change rapidly
An excessive аmоunt оf fаts in the blоod is cаlled
Phytoplankton – Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
lipid – Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
infertility – The inability to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse.
carrying capacity – largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Coded instructions – Generally, the information found in DNA that determines how a protein is to be made.

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