Biology Keystone Unit 1 Vocabulary (basic Biological Principles)

Embryology – Embryos of different species may appear similar in early stages of development. Evidence of evolution
translocation – 1) When pieces of nonhomologous chromosomes are broken off and rearranged. 2) The movement of carbohydrates produced in leaves, to meristematic tissue to be used for growth.
Mitochondria – organelles that carry out cellular respiration, converts chemical energy of foods into chemical energy for the cell (ATP) "POWER HOUSE"
incubation period – The period of time it takes for symptoms to appear after exposure to a pathogen.
Metaphase – Second phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the equator of the cell
Phenotype – The way an organism looks and behaves
Kingdom Plantae – contains multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms including gymnosperms and angiosperms.
abiotic – non living environmental factors
A technologist is reviewing lab results for glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) levels. The purpose of this test is to:  
How many pairs of chromosomes to humans have – 23
How does the body defend against pathogens entering? (3 ways) – It…

1. …has a mucous layer that covers exchange surfaces preventing entry of pathogens.
2. …produces enzymes which break down pathogens.
3. …has stomach acid which killls pathogens due to a low pH.

Transport – Circulation. The movement of materials, particularly the movement of materials across a membrane in cells.
A technоlоgist is reviewing lаb results fоr glycosylаted hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) levels. The purpose of this test is to:  
6.3.8 Discuss the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS – cause:
human immunodeficiency virus / HIV / HIV 1 and HIV 2;
retrovirus / RNA to DNA;
enters T-helper cells;
immune system becomes disabled / weakened;
greater chance for opportunistic infections;
transmission:
sexually transmitted;
can be transmitted from man to woman;
saliva and other body fluids;
use of dirty needles;
blood transfusions;
social implications of AIDS:
many orphaned children;
social stigma / discrimination;
problems obtaining employment / life insurance;
costs on health systems of treating people;
early death reduces family income;
drug treatment expensive;
encourages use of condoms;
Proteins – Atoms made up of C, H, O, N, S
Amino acids are the building blocks (monomer) of ________. They control the rate of reactions and regulate (control) cell processes.

Ex. Chicken, beef, hemoglobin, part of the cell membrane, spider webs, hair

The ability of cells and organisms to maintain a stable internal environment – Homeostasis
stimulus – A signal to which an organism responds.
autotrophs – An organism that makes its own food (often by photosynthesis), thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules. Plants, algae, and numerous bacteria are autotrophs.

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