Chapter 4 Biology Vocabulary

polymer – A large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits.
primary consumers – animals that feed on producers / plants; ex. herbivores, such as a horse
Chemiosmosis – Energy-coupling mechanism that uses the energy of hydrogen ion (H+) gradients across membranes to drive cellular work, such as the phosphorylation of ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells.
binomial nomenclature – Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid, A molecule containing the universal genetic code.
biology – scientific study of life
Gamete – A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg.
Simple eye – An eye with only one lens
transcription – process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA…
phylum Anthophyta – Flowering plants: this is the phylum that contains angiosperms.
Hyposegmentation of the nucleus is characteristic of which white blood cell anomaly?
hormone – chemical secreted into a plant or animal body and transported to another part where it affects growth or activity
Haploid – a specialized cell that contains half the chromosome number
topoisomerase – Enzyme that functions in DNA replication, helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
univalve – an organism with a single shell
How has DNA sequencing changed the classification system? – It can show how closely organisms are related, this has led to reclassification of some animals.
vacuoles – organelle common to plant cells. Large structures that store water, nutrients, and chemicals.
Hypоsegmentаtiоn оf the nucleus is chаrаcteristic of which white blood cell anomaly?
Observation – Using senses, tools, and previous research to study the world.
31. catalyst – Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Explain the function of ATP in the cells of living organisms. Give an example. – ATP serves as a source of energy in cells, One of ATP's phosphate groups pops off and releases energy. Enzymes help to replace the phosphate group.

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