Chapter 10 (glencoe Biology)

2.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes – ◾Active transport is the passage of materials against a concentration gradient (from low to high)
◾This process requires the use of protein pumps which use the energy from ATP to translocate the molecules against the gradient
◾The hydrolysis of ATP causes a conformational change in the protein pump resulting in the forced movement of the substance
◾Protein pumps are specific for a given molecule, allowing for movement to be regulated (e.g. to maintain chemical or electrical gradients)
◾An example of an active transport mechanism is the Na+/K+ pump which is involved in the generation of nerve impulses
Cytoplasm – region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
tropical dry forest biome – biome characterized by alternating rainy and dry seasons with rich soil that is subject to erosion
Crossing over – Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations.
mass selection – the method for selecting breeding stock in which only the desirable organisms are selected
algal bloom – an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
Diffusion – – Usually across a membrane
– High to low concentration
– Passive transport –> NO ATP NEEDED
Redi – Scientist that studied maggots using gauze and jars (1st controlled experiment)
Bile functions to ____________.
Cytoplasm – Technically, all the material outside the nucleus and inside the cell membrane. In some books it refers only to the gel-like material that other cell structures or organelles are embedded in.
molting – The process of shedding an old exoskeleton or cuticle and secreting a new, larger one.
ribosome – organelle where protein synthesis occurs; made of rRNA and protein; not membrane bound
Bile functiоns tо ____________.
ozone depletion – caused by the release of CFC's into the atmosphere

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