Biology Chapter 11: How Genes Are Controlled

anthropoids – A member of a primate group made up of the apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo), monkeys, and humans.
Arm – What part of the microscope is #2?
promoter – the region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA, this is the start of a gene 12-3
Gene mutation – Any change in the sequence of base pairs found on a DNA molecule. Can occur from inserting an extra base, deleting a base, or substituting one base for another. When these occur in sex cells, the changed DNA can be passed on to offspring. It is the source of genetic variation in living things.
tuber – A modified stem that serves as an underground storage system.
Organ System – An anatomical system composed of a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or task.
tertiary structure – The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
Substrate – The specific molecule acted upon by a specific enzyme.
(T/F): Urine leaves the kidney via the ureter and leaves the bladder via the urethra. – True
ventricle – (1) A heart chamber that pumps blood out of a heart. (2) A space in the vertebrate brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Label X is _____ to label Y.
New organisms produced by a living thing, the product of the reproductive processes of an animal or plant – Offspring
optimum temperature for aerobic respiration (with oxygen) – 40 degrees Celsius
positive feedback – A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will amplify the change. Takes organism away from a steady state.
climax community – a stable mature community after succession
Lаbel X is _____ tо lаbel Y.
joints – A location where two or more bones make contact.
Nucleotides – are the monomers that form nucleic acids, containing a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

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