Ap Psychology Ch 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

Consciousness – Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
cognitive restructuring – cognitive therapy in which clients discuss their fears and are led to change their attitudes and beliefs about the situations that frighten them
Positive Punishment – presenting an aversive stimulus which decreases behavior
Very low birthweight – less than 2.5 pounds
vulnerability-stress model – states that psychological disorders result from an interaction between biological and environmental factors. According to this model, individuals who have a biological vulnerability to a particular disorder will have the disorder only if certain environmental stressors are present.
Correlational methods – associate different factors
Association Areas – areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
authoritarian – parenting style where the parent is in charge and makes all decisions
Significant Difference – Two results are only significantly different if their difference is much larger than the estimated error.
Frustration-Agression Hypothesis – the extent to which we feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that we will react aggressively
We know that the brain and immune system interaction is modulated by all of the following psychological factors EXCEPT:
Acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter that enables learning, memory and muscle action
formal operational stage – in Piaget's theory normally begins about age 12. During this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
otoliths – tiny crystals that sense linear movement and gravity
social facilitation – stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
We knоw thаt the brаin аnd immune system interactiоn is mоdulated by all of the following psychological factors EXCEPT:
Self-concept – A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.
Primacy Effect – – Superior recall of items at the BEGINNING of the list.
– These items have been rehearsed more and therefore, more likely to enter LTM.
population – all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies

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