Glencoe Biology Chapter 15: Evolution

Chromosomes – A single molecule of DNA and (usually) proteins. They are the units of DNA that are passed on to offspring. In sexually reproducing organisms, they come in pairs. Prokaryotes (bacteria) generally have a single, circular one without proteins.
Protein (Polypeptide) – Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes; Use Biuret to test; Monomer = amino acid
aqueous solution – solutions in which water is the solvent
the irreversible disaearance of a population or species – extintion
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum? – The sarcoplasmic reticulum is modified reticulum that stores calcium ions(in muscle cells)
immigration – movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population (affects GROWTH RATE)
What happens to excess sodium taken in by the body?
photoautotroph – An organism that obtains energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2 by photosynthesis.
Stigma – The part of the carpel that receives pollen during pollination.
peptidoglycan – Cell wall of prokaryotes, but NOT ARCHAEA. Made of a sugar polymer and polypeptide.
Uracil – The nitrogen base that replaces Thymine in RNA. Bonds with Adenine
phylum Coniferophyta – Phylum that contains evergreens/conifers
Whаt hаppens tо excess sоdium tаken in by the bоdy?
structural protein – this type of protein functions in support; examples include insect and spider silk, collagen and elastin in animal connective tissues, and keratin found in hair, nails, horns, and feathers
polymer – Large molecule formed from smaller repeating units of identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds.
carboxyl group – A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
genital herpes – A sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2.

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