Dive Biology Terms Lesson 19

mitochondrion – cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
trans fat – an unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds
monosaccharide – simple sugar molecule
6.2.4 Outline the control of the heartbeat in terms of myogenic muscle contraction, the role of the pacemaker, nerves, the medulla of the brain and epinephrine (adrenaline) – the heart is myogenic / beats on its own accord;
60-80 times a minute (at rest);
coordination of heartbeat is under the control of pacemaker;
located in the muscle / walls;
sends out signal for contraction of heart muscle;
atria contract followed by ventricular contraction;
fibres / electrical impulses cause chambers to contract;
nerve from brain can cause heart rate to speed up;
nerve from brain can cause heart rate to slow down;
adrenalin/epinephrine (carried by blood) speeds up heart rate;
artificial pacemakers can control the heartbeat;
;Sympathetic nerves speed up heart rate ;Parasympathetic nerves slow down heart rate
reproductive rate – Difference between per capita birth and per capita death rates.
Specimen – An object of study. In biology usually refers to a living thing being studied in a laboratory setting, as opposed to a living thing being studied in the field. Also usually a dead and/or preserved organism or sample of tissue from an organism.
Polysaccharide – A complete carbohydrate that forms when simple sugars bind together in a chain
Organic compound – any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
The type of cartilage at the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation is known as __________.
controlled experiment – An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
Nerve cells use differences in sodium and potassium concentration produced by the pump to see signals throughout the body. – How does the sodium-potassium pump work to ensure correct concentrations of these ions? What ions go in? What ions go out?
Atom – (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes – Structure of Phospholipids:
◾Consist of a polar head (hydrophilic) made from glycerol and phosphate
◾Consist of two non-polar fatty acid tails (hydrophobic)
Arrangement in Membrane:
◾Phospholipids spontaneously arrange in a bilayer
◾Hydrophobic tail regions face inwards and are shielded from the surrounding polar fluid while the two hydrophilic head regions associate with the cytosolic and extracellular environments respectively
Structural Properties of Phospholipid Bilayer:
◾Phospholipids are held together in a bilayer by hydrophobic interactions (weak associations)
◾Hydrophilic / hydrophobic layers restrict entry and exit of substances
◾Phospholipids allow for membrane fluidity / flexibility (important for functionality)
◾Phospholipids with short or unsaturated fatty acids are more fluid
◾Phospholipids can move horizontally or occasionally laterally to increase fluidity
◾Fluidity allows for the breaking / remaking of membranes (exocytosis / endocytosis
The type оf cаrtilаge аt the epiphysis where the bоne fоrms an articulation is known as __________.
arteries – blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Cytosine – Nitrogenus Base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with Guanine
responding variable – A factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable
As the cell grows, the volume to surface area (increases, decreases). – increases
Nucleotide – Monomer of nucleic acid, made of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base

This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply