Experimenter Expectancy Effect – Phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study.
Psychodynamic Theory – unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior, early childhood experiences, motivations behind behavior
Nicotine – A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
School psychology – Handles the problems of students
descriptive statistics – Statistics used to describe only the observed group or sample from which they were derived; summary statistics such as percent, averages, and measures of variability that are computed on a particular group of individuals.
Sleep-wake Cycle Shifts During Adolescence – During adolescence, the release of melatonin occurs 1-2 hours later compared with children and adults, therefore there is a shift of the body clock, forward by about 1-2 hours, making the adolescence sleepier later.
Speech and Language Communication Disorders – Disorders characterized by difficulty communicating, either by having trouble expressing oneself or by being unable to properly receive information.
retina – the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Erik Erikson – "developed Theory of Psychosocial Development; Believed that people progress through 8 psychosocial stages during life span. Each stage has conflict between individual and environment, must be overcome to fully develop"
psychoanalysis – 1) Sigmund Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; (2) Freud's therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
Sam is a very health-conscious person who exercises regularly, eats a balanced diet regularly, and has an active social life. Sam's friends do not eat balanced diets and often go out with Sam to fast-food restaurants and order triple cheeseburgers and a side salad. Sam's friends believe they are “balancing out” their unhealthy burgers with the healthy side salad. Sam's friends' thinking is a demonstration of what principle?
neutral stimulus (NS) – stimulus that has no effect on the desired response.
Unconscious motivation – Having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire. Freud's psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious motivation
Ideographic Development – Individual variations in the rate, extent, or direction of development
Unconditioned Response – unlearned, naturally occuring response to UCS
Theory – Statement that attempts to explain things
continuous reinforcement – Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
sexual response cycle – The four-stage sequence of arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution occurring in both men and women
Sаm is а very heаlth-cоnsciоus persоn who exercises regularly, eats a balanced diet regularly, and has an active social life. Sam's friends do not eat balanced diets and often go out with Sam to fast-food restaurants and order triple cheeseburgers and a side salad. Sam's friends believe they are “balancing out” their unhealthy burgers with the healthy side salad. Sam's friends' thinking is a demonstration of what principle?
law of effect – Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
psychometrics – The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits