Bfhs Biology Chapter 1

heat – during every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as ______
A type of cell that contains a nucleus – Eukaryotic Cell
organ – A specialized structure composed of several different types of tissues that together perform specific functions.
Symbiosis – Relationship of organisms
cytoplasm – All of the structures outside of the nucleus, but inside of the cell membrane.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): – combines elements of the MRI and PET scans. Can show details of brain structures with information about blood flow in the brain, tying brain structures to brain activity during cognitive tasks.
eukaryotic cell – cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
antigen presentation – The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.
nonpolar – No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
PD-1 is a negative co-stimulatory signal expressed by tumor cells.  What advantage would the expression of PD-1 have in a tumor cell avoiding the immune response?
bioenergetics – the study of how energy flows through living organisms
tetrapod – A vertebrate with two pairs of limbs. Tetrapods include mammals, amphibians, and birds and other reptiles.
Osmosis – Diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Antigen – A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
PD-1 is а negаtive cо-stimulаtоry signal expressed by tumоr cells.  What advantage would the expression of PD-1 have in a tumor cell avoiding the immune response?
lipids – large macromolecules composed composed of mostly carbon and hydrogen and very little oxygen (ex. fats, waxes and oils)
macrophages – A large, amoeboid, phagocytic white blood cell that functions in innate immunity by destorying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell.
Detrivores – An organism that ingests dead organic matter

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