Apologia Biology Module 2 Vocabulary 2nd Edition

Punctuated equilibrium – This theory of origin of species was proposed by Eldrige and Gould
Heterotroph – An organism that feeds to obtain energy
nitric oxide (NO) – Local regulator that regulates blood oxygen levels, A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.
rate-limiting step – The slowest step of the photosynthesis reaction; decreases the rate of photosynthesis as a whole; determined by external environmental factors (limiting factors) such as temperature, CO2 concentration and light intensity
microfilament – thin solid protein fibers used for movement in cells
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) – like ATP, but with only 2 phosphate groups. Becomes ATP when another phosphate group is added durin Light Reaction Cycle (LRC)
cilia – Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
What is the function of ductus venosus? – The ductus venosus shunts blood away from fetal liver
The movement of materials INTO and OUT of a cell WITHOUT using energy – Passive Transport
Why is genetic testing controversial? – Some people believe it is unnatural, and we shouldn't interfere with nature; some people think that we have no right to decide if a genetic disorder is worth living with; some people would exploit it and use it to determine other characteristics for their children, which would risk damage and reduce variation; some people think screening babies at birth is a better option, and tailor their healthcare around that.
The purpose of the H+ gradient in the ETC is:
gene – sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
Breakdown of food into usable cell energy. – Cellular respiration
In ______________ one species, the predator, hunts and eats another, the prey – Predation
Prophase – what stage is this?
cellular respiration – Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What is the Rh factor? How can the Rh factor complicate pregnancy? – The Rh factor is an antigen on the surface of RBCs. Following the birth of an Rh+ child, an Rh- mother develops antibodies to the Rh factor. These antibodies can attach the blood cells of any Rh+ fetuses carried by the mother.
Protein – compound made of carbon compounds called amino acids; involved in nearly all functions of the body
The purpоse оf the H+ grаdient in the ETC is:
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
Eustachian tube – A tube that connects the middle ear cavity to the throat.
Lysosome – The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

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