theory y – leaders believe that people are ambitious about things of importance and will achieve results when properly challenged
-use democratic, coaching and supportive leadership techniques
bureaucracy – 계급에 의해 직위가 나뉘고 일의 업무가 나뉘는것. 주로 상하구조로 이루어짐
Feedback Control – monitoring products, learning from post mistakes
intrinsic reward – is the satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment, that a person receives from performing the particular task itself
unrelated diversification – creating or acquiring companies in completely unrelated businesses
Ethics in Action – In an era of markedly limited physical, human, and fiscal resources, nearly all decision making by nurse-managers involves some ethical component.
to strive for – siekti (ko), stengtis dėl
Theory Y – Employee is a human being who just wants to do his best. Give him opportunity and decentralize authority.
justice approach- ethical dilemmas – is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity
job characteristics model (JCM) 5 core job dimensions – skill variety (job has many activities that require a wide spread of talents)
task identity (degree that a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work)
task significance (degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of others)
autonomy (degree of freedom w/in job to schedule work on it and determine procedures to carry it out)
feedback (degree a job results in clear effectiveness feedback on performance)
Which of the following needs to be completed before a manufacturing Kaizen Event begins?
prospectors – focus on developing new products and in seeking out new markets
Discovery – legal process of each party figuring out what the other party plans to present as evidence
How do I get the job? – Solid communication skills
Which оf the fоllоwing needs to be completed before а mаnufаcturing Kaizen Event begins?
the P&L account begins with… – total sales (=revenue) generated during a month, quarter or year
compulsory – required, obligatory, necessary according to the law
Expectancy Theory – Expectancy – the perceived probability that a person's efforts will lead to performance
Instrumentality – the perceived correlation between successful performance and obtaining the reward
Valence – the perceived value a person ascribes to the reward
People select courses of action that maximize perceived chances for valued rewards
Effort → Performance → Rewards Expectancy Instrumentality x Valence
Relevance for Managers:
-Listening offers insights into employees' perceptions
-Employee perceptions can be influenced by managerial actions
Goal: managers should empower employees to make decisions if management really wants them to believe that their hard work and effort will lead to good performance
Global Company – a multinational venture centrally managed from a specific country
managers – individuals in organizations who can plan organize and control finances, production and purchasing, but may not be considered effective leaders