Introduction To The History And Science Of Psychology (myers 7e In Modules)

Oral Stage – (before age 1) the 1st psychosexual stage in which the mouth is the center
of pleasure and conflict ; stems from weaning
EX late weaning: overeating as an adult
EX early weaning: biting as an adult
Extinction – The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
mesomorph – muscular, rectangular, strong, and personality-wise were filled with energy, courage, and assertive tendencies.
Peripheral nervous system – name of all the systems outside of the brain and spinal chord
Negative reinforcement – Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (NR IS NOT PUNISHMENT)
somatic nervous system – the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles; also called skeletal nervous system
How often does the USDA revise and publish their guidelines for healthy eating, nutrition, and chronic illness prevention?
classical conditioning – A type of learning in which associations are formed between two stimuli that occur sequentially in time.
Negative reinforcement – occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversion (unpleasant) stimulus (torture)
Maturation – Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Ivan Pavlov – Researcher whose experiments with dogs' salivation response displayed the phenomenon of classical conditioning
Dependant variable – Changes/varies as result of changes in the independent variable
Hоw оften dоes the USDA revise аnd publish their guidelines for heаlthy eаting, nutrition, and chronic illness prevention?
double-blind experiment – an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
Dualism – The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.

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