#4 Biology Eca Review 2014

Response to stimuli – Actions we take when faced with information or sensations. For example, hunger causes us to seek food. The amount of light we are exposed to causes the pupils of our eyes get smaller (contract) or larger (dilate). Etc.
nucleic acid – An organic compound in living cells that is responsible for passing on hereditary information; DNA and RNA.
vegetative reproduction – An asexual method of plant reproduction, which produces offspring with the same genetic makeup and traits as the parent. This can occur naturally, or be induced for the purpose of making sure desirable traits are passed down.
replication – the action or process of reproducing or duplicating
cornea – The transparent frontal portion of the sclera, which admits light into the vertebrate eye.
phospholipid bilayer – plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside
Physical digestion – no chemical bonds broken
muscles in stomach
acid – compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
chemical bonds – an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells
diploid – 2 n equals 46 chromosomes
Which myeloproliferative disorder is characterized by fibrosis of the marrow, extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen or liver, leukoerythroblastosis, and teardrop poikilocytosis?
Humus – A material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
Concentration gradient – the difference in concentration of a particular molecule between two regions
dissacharide – A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis.
Chemical Indicators – Most commonly, substances that change color to show the presence or absence of a target chemical. Other ways they "show" the presence of other substances are by producing gases (bubbles), or turning cloudy (forming a precipitate). Example: Iodine shows the presence of starch by changing color.
excurrent – A conical pattern of branches.
fruit ripening – A burst of ethylene production in a fruit triggers the ripening process.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the energy-carrier molecule used to power cellular processes; stores energy in the chemical bonds between its three phosphate groups
Which myelоprоliferаtive disоrder is chаrаcterized by fibrosis of the marrow, extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen or liver, leukoerythroblastosis, and teardrop poikilocytosis?
What is cirrhosis of the liver? – When the liver gets damaged when breaking down toxic chemicals (e.g alcohol)
x-ray crystallography – A technique used to study the three-dimensional structure of molecules. It depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule.
conidiophore – Specialized stalks on which conidia are formed.
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration? – 60-64
Hydrolysis – a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds

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